@Download Kindle Ð The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century ⚣ eBook or Kindle ePUB free

@Download Kindle º The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century ã Betweenandthan thirty countries in southern Europe, Latin America, East Asia, and Eastern Europe shifted from authoritarian to democratic systems of government This global democratic revolution is probably the most important political trend in the late twentieth century In The Third Wave, Samuel P Huntington analyzes the causes and nature of these democratic transitions, evaluates the prospects for stability of the new democracies, and explores the possibility of countries becoming democratic The recent transitions, he argues, are the third major wave of democratization in the modem world Each of the two previous waves was followed by a reverse wave in which some countries shifted back to authoritarian government Using concrete examples, empirical evidence, and insightful analysis, Huntington provides neither a theory nor a history of the third wave, but an explanation of why and how it occurredFactors responsible for the democratic trend include the legitimacy dilemmas of authoritarian regimes economic and social development the changed role of the Catholic Church the impact of the United States, the European Community, and the Soviet Union and the snowballing phenomenon change in one country stimulating change in others Five key elite groups within and outside the nondemocratic regime played roles in shaping the various ways democratization occurred Compromise was key to all democratizations, and elections and nonviolent tactics also were central New democracies must deal with the torturer problem and the praetorian problem and attempt to develop democratic values and processes Disillusionment with democracy, Huntington argues, is necessary to consolidating democracy He concludes the book with an analysis of the political, economic, and cultural factors that will decide whether or not the third wave continuesSeveral Guidelines for Democratizers offer specific, practical suggestions for initiating and carrying out reform Huntington s emphasis on practical application makes this book a valuable tool for anyone engaged in the democratization process At this volatile time in history, Huntington s assessment of the processes of democratization is indispensable to understanding the future of democracy in the world Ah, Huntington I guess it was inevitable that I wouldn t make it through a Master s in International Affairs without having to read this one Interesting premise, but history has shown he s gotten it a little bit wrong I have some strong objections to his take on dealing with past human rights abuses in transitional phases There just isn t good evidence to support his claim that you can t pursue peace unless you grant amnesty to perpetrators Latin American cases have proven that you can, and Ah, Huntington I guess it was inevitable that I wouldn t make it through a Master s in International Affairs without having to read this one Interesting premise, but history has shown he s gotten it a little bit wrong I have some strong objections to his take on dealing with past human rights abuses in transitional phases There just isn t good evidence to support his claim that you can t pursue peace unless you grant amnesty to perpetrators Latin American cases have proven that you can, and often should, confront the past in the as many ways as possible including full prosecutions for those who committed human rights abuses I should confess a distaste for Huntington to start I thought Political Order in Changing Societies was crypto fascist, with too much emphasis on the strength of institutions with too little attention paid to their purpose or responsiveness And Clash of Civilizations was essentially racist absolutism, with as much intellectual rigor as a stand up comedian s white people do this, black people do that act Still, that doesn t mean The Third Wave is all bad Huntington should get a lot of I should confess a distaste for Huntington to start I thought Political Order in Changing Societies was crypto fascist, with too much emphasis on the strength of institutions with too little attention paid to their purpose or responsiveness And Clash of Civilizations was essentially racist absolutism, with as much intellectual rigor as a stand up comedian s white people do this, black people do that act Still, that doesn t mean The Third Wave is all bad Huntington should get a lot of respect for trying to explain the undeniable transition toward the liberal democratic model that took place in the latter portion of the 20th century rather than trying to come up with silly one size fits all theories for predicting democratization like Rostow s take off theory.Huntington s explanation boils down to failures by the authoritarian state versus the rise of non state actors Dictators, economically isolated and internally corrupt, fail to generate the funds necessary to supply goods to the people in order to buy their obedience through social services and other programs Using force to quash dissent proves less effective as dissent grows widespread, fomenting armed resistance In the meantime, non state institutions varying from trade unions to religious groups provide services to the public, motivate social movements against the regime and contribute to the demise of the regime s claim to authority Huntington offers a strong structural explanation for democratization.His attempts to guess at which countries will emerge out of the democratization process as stable and promising democracies is where he falls short, however He is correct that native democracy movements do better because they have better claims at legitimacy, but he lumps external factors into a vague welcoming international environment category that downplays the massive influence of the Washington Consensus and the political economy in determining just how much freedom Third World countries have to elect who they want and what policies they adopt Huntington switches from structure to culture in the predictive part of the book, and The Third Wave is at its most noxious when he casts doubts upon democracy in places like Mongolia and Pakistan because democracy is somehow incompatible with Confucian and Islamic precepts The enemy of democracy true rule by the people has been and always will be the campaign by elites, inside and outside a country, to defend their interests against the majority who would redistribute resourcesequally If cultural factors were truly a major variable in deciding who holds on to democracy, how does one explain the variance of democracy s survival in culturally similar places like Britain and Germany or Romania and Russia To be fair, Huntington did not have the benefit of a crystal ball Yet, like too many scholars, he fell into the trap of looking at people based on nominal categories something that intellectuals have been doing since the time of race science and eugenics, if not before If you can separate the bad from the good, The Third Wave is an interesting exploration of the conditions leading up to authoritarian breakdown and the rise of democratic movements but not muchthan that While Huntington has no concerns about keeping his prose lively, I still found this book worth pushing through for the detailed analysis it presents It s also important to heed the caveats he offers at the beginning this is intended to be an in depth consideration of the conditions, processes, and results of the third wave of democratizations that happened in the second half of the 20th century It is not intended as an authoritative text on all democratization everywhere, though of course y While Huntington has no concerns about keeping his prose lively, I still found this book worth pushing through for the detailed analysis it presents It s also important to heed the caveats he offers at the beginning this is intended to be an in depth consideration of the conditions, processes, and results of the third wave of democratizations that happened in the second half of the 20th century It is not intended as an authoritative text on all democratization everywhere, though of course you can t help but draw general conclusions as you read it, which he also doesopenly as the book progresses I read it shortly after finishing a book on the origins and early years of the Iraq war The Assassin s Gate by George Packer, highly recommended , and found that an interesting case to consider in light of the democratizations Huntington focuses on The Third Wave is also a helpful perspective when the Atlantic and other media are running headlines like Is Democracy Dying This book doesn t answer that question, both because of its scope and temporal focus, but it certainly adds to the conversation