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~Download Kindle ☪ Spinoza: Practical Philosophy ⚖ Spinoza s theoretical philosophy is one of the most radical attempts to construct a pure ontology, with a single infinite substance, and all beings as the modes of being his substance This book, which presents Spinoza s main ideas in dictionary form, has as its subject the opposition between ethics and morality, and the link between ethical and ontological propositions His ethics is an ethology, rather than a moral science Attention has been drawn to Spinoza by deep ecologists such as Arne Naess, the Norwegian philosopher and this reading of Spinoza by Deleuze lends itself to a radical ecological ethic As Robert Hurley says in his introduction, Deleuze opens us to the idea that the elements of the different individuals we compose may be nonhuman within us One wonders, finally, whether Man might be defined as a territory, a set of boundaries, a limit on existence Gilles Deleuze, known for his inquiries into desire, language, politics, and power, finds a kinship between Spinoza and Nietzsche He writes, Spinoza did not believe in hope or even in courage he believed only in joy and in vision he than any other gave me the feeling of a gust of air from behind each time I read him, of a witch s broom that he makes one mount Gilles Deleuze was a French philosopher whose writings influenced many philosophical disciplines such as literary theory, post structuralism, and postmodernism He also taught philosophy at the University of Paris at VicennesRobert Hurley was a translator for many French philosophers including Michael Foucault History of Sexuality , Gilles Deleuze, and George Bataille Theory of Religion As a long time fan of both Mssrs Spinoza and Deleuze, this made for a very impressive synthesis Deleuze loses his weird, babbling writing style and becomes pretty lucid, showing the linkages between his own philosophy and the ecstatic monist perspective of Spinoza, showing subversive possibilities everywhere. Loving this Brief but super introduction too by Robert Hurley He warns that the bokk may be difficult , and advises the reader to read lightly I didn t find ithard, I found it delightful and rich Coming from Gilles it was easy This book consists of 6 chapters The first examines the life of Spinoza This helps the read to gain an understanding, or at least a connection with Spinoza in his writing It also helps bring about some of the concepts that Deleuze puts forward later such as the idea that Spinoza was never a Cartesian Chapter 2 interrogates the three denunciations which Spinoza must make before moving towards the univocity of being They are the devaluation of consciousness, values, and sad passions The th This book consists of 6 chapters The first examines the life of Spinoza This helps the read to gain an understanding, or at least a connection with Spinoza in his writing It also helps bring about some of the concepts that Deleuze puts forward later such as the idea that Spinoza was never a Cartesian Chapter 2 interrogates the three denunciations which Spinoza must make before moving towards the univocity of being They are the devaluation of consciousness, values, and sad passions The third chapter examines the correspondence between Blyenbergh and Spinoza in regard to the problem of evil Through this correspondence, Deleuze unpacks what Spinoza might mean when he states that there is no evil The fourth and longest chapter contains an index of terms used by Spinoza This might be useful when reading through texts written by Spinoza, and speaks to Deleuze s understanding of philosophy as creating concepts The fifth chapter returns to essay form In this essay Deleuze talks about the evolution of Spinoza s thought, and why his later understanding of common notions undoes much of his work from his initial, unfinished Treatise Finally, the sixth chapter, and fifth essay, places us in the middle of Spinoza s philosophy It places bodes as modes which are situated in the plane of immanence Bodies are described by their affective capacity This chapter helps set the stage for Deleuze s plane of immanence and the body without organs I cried at 9 37 pm on December 31st 2017 in a small bar in the middle of the Bible Belt Surrounded by University of West Georgia undergrad Greek life students watching football, waiting for the year, they waited for some difference, for new relationships, for new days Meanwhile I cried feeling I was already anew Chapter 2 and 5 were clarity and serious solidarity to my first reading of Spinoza There is not much in the world that seems to have a harmony with my vision of this universes ontol I cried at 9 37 pm on December 31st 2017 in a small bar in the middle of the Bible Belt Surrounded by University of West Georgia undergrad Greek life students watching football, waiting for the year, they waited for some difference, for new relationships, for new days Meanwhile I cried feeling I was already anew Chapter 2 and 5 were clarity and serious solidarity to my first reading of Spinoza There is not much in the world that seems to have a harmony with my vision of this universes ontology than Spinoza s Ethics And there isn t abrief interpretation than this to justify that Spinoza is present in the modern mind of the academic and in need of being grasped by the modern theist than this work I ve never read somethingwholesome than Deleuze s idea of Spinoza s life and work.This one is for anyone searching2018, take my lead This book is a huge undertaking Not because it is necessarilychallenging than Deleuze s other works, nor indeed Spinoza s, but because when read in conjunction with or parallel to The Ethics, the two books form a near infinite maze or puzzle, one in which we may find ourselves chasing down seemingly endless trails and avenues of propositions, definitions, scholia, corollaries and notions The middle passage of Practical Philosophy, in particular, which is itself a sort of dictionary of th This book is a huge undertaking Not because it is necessarilychallenging than Deleuze s other works, nor indeed Spinoza s, but because when read in conjunction with or parallel to The Ethics, the two books form a near infinite maze or puzzle, one in which we may find ourselves chasing down seemingly endless trails and avenues of propositions, definitions, scholia, corollaries and notions The middle passage of Practical Philosophy, in particular, which is itself a sort of dictionary of the Ethics, a maze of a maze, is a pursuit that seems to span the universe itself Now, I put a lot of energy into reading The Ethics, and I got a lot out of it over, I felt that I gained quite a good handle on its implications What this book does a fantastic job of, however, is taking us down strange, surprising, yet ultimately quite clear paths through Spinoza s thought Deleuze manages to nudge us in certain directions, along certain lines, many of which may have been uncharted, unexplored by us.Deleuze has a deep love of Spinoza, the type of love Spinoza might say pertaining to a pure bond of friendship the type of love that would course through all of those who lived in Spinoza s vision of the state of reason Indeed, it is precisely this same love that is found in Nietzsche s letter from mid 1881I am utterly amazed, utterly enchanted I have a precursor, and what a precursorIn summa my lonesomeness, which, as on very high mountains, often made it hard for me to breathe and make my blood rush out, is now at least a twosomenessThe love that may cause any of us to realize suddenly that they are Spinozist a pure love, that we feel and experience upon being caught in the middle of Spinoza.Deleuze characterises Spinoza as a liberator and a demystifier The Spinozan ethics is not at all a morality whereas morality sets itself up as a system of transcendent truths, based on the idea of god as either a commanding tyrant or a legislature working to a set of standards that are somehow above himself theological contradiction of omnipotence , The Ethics is rather an ethology It is an immanent system grounded in affective capacities Everything, when one lives in this manner, can be thought of as a food or a poison does that which I am encountering decompose my relation weakening my state, preoccupying my energy with reaction or does it enter into composition with me having a common internal relation whereby the bodies in question combine to form a stronger whole or body or Individual In this light, the Spinozist becomes an experimenter we do not know in advance the affects that we are capable of, our thresholds, what bodies may empower us and in what combination we must have the prudence of men of the line, the quiet consideration and childlike wonder of all great experimenters.It is interesting to me to note upon how I have come across a number of sources who describe Spinoza s theory of mind, or,precisely, of consciousness, as somewhat incomplete or lacking they suggest that it almost requires some other concept to fill it out But this is precisely where Deleuze comes in with his notion of the Spinozan unconscious For Deleuze, following the famous parallelism, Spinoza discovers an unconscious of thought just as profound as the unknown of the body We do not know what a body can do for all of the parts of the body we are unaware of, there is simultaneously, or rather, in parallel, an idea of that part in the attribute of thought and within our mind, as the idea of our body , of which we are likewise unaware Indeed, it is precisely the ideas of these parts, which constitute our mind but of which we are unaware, that comprise the unconscious of the mind As an aside, it s interesting that when neurotics and critics parse through the work of Deleuze Guattari, trying to identify and portion off who out of the couple did what, they often comment upon how Guattari was already formulating the machinic unconscious before meeting Deleuze, thereby ignoring the fact that Deleuze was also conceptualising a very similar notion of the unconscious through Spinoza, and, worse still, completely missing the incredibly beautiful fact that both of them were in actuality already travelling down such similar and resonant lines The section of The Ethics which most directly pertains to Spinoza s notion of consciousness is roughly IIP12 24, and, suffice to say, things get fairly complex in there We know, fairly clearly, from the famous parallelism proposition of IIP7S and as also explicated by Spinoza in IIIP2S that to each body in extension there is a parallel idea the idea represents its object epistemological parallelism Further, by the time we get to IIP13 we know that the object corresponding to the idea that we call the human mind is the human body and nothing else So far so good Where things start to get complicated is in the tension between IIP12 and IIP19 IIP24 according to the former, anything that happens in the body must necessarily be perceived by the mind, whereas the latter state, firstly, that the human mind does not know the human body itself, except through ideas of its affections, and secondly, that the human mind does not have adequate knowledge of the parts composing the human body How are we to reconcile this apparent tension Well, Deleuze tells us that we have to distinguish the idea that we are the mind as the idea of the body from the ideas that we have The idea that we are is in GodTherefore we do not have this idea immediately The only ideas we have under the natural conditions of our perception are the ideas that represent what happens to our body original italics cf Idea Also in p.19 We are in a condition such that we only take in what happens to our body, what happens to our mind We take the body as a model for experimentation in order that we may in parallel discover the powers of our mind alongside.Any review of Practical Philosophy would be amiss if it did not mention Deleuze s exploration of the common notions in Spinoza For Deleuze, the common notions take on a central significance in The Ethics The common notions are an Art, the art of the Ethics itself It s quite remarkable really, because when I started reading Practical Philosophy I could barely recall this Spinozist concept not that their movement and idea was foreign to me, nor that the content of the concept was alien, but I had barely realised the extent to which Spinoza had defined and articulated some of these ideas You see, despite the fact that, as Deleuze shows, the common notions are the key to the second kind of knowledge, and that they also embody the passage to the third kind of knowledge, Spinoza actually only mentions them rather fleetingly, in IIP38 IIP39 Nevertheless, they answer an incredibly important question how do we manage to form adequate ideas, and in what order, given that the natural conditions of our perception condemn us to have only inadequate ideas The answer is in the common notions You see, when something affects us with joy, that is, when something enters into composition with us, strengthens and empowers us, this can only be due to a certain common relation within both bodies There is a certain relation common to both bodies that allows the two to compose each other into a stronger body there is an agreement If we put a flat object on a flat table, they enter into a composition with each other, they agree with each other, due to a certain shared relation If, on the other hand, we put a spherical object onto a flat table, we can say that that common relation which allowed the two bodies to enter into composition with one another is now missing hence, the bodies will seek to expel each other the sphere will roll off the table On p.75 Deleuze refers to how the inadequate idea misses the concatenation of ideas When I first came across this word I was overjoyed it perfectly sums up the process of reason that leads us to the formation of common notions Concatenation The action of linking things together in a series a series of interconnected things I later discovered, by chance, that in fact many translation of The Ethics entirely substitute this word for the word connection which is used in my copy It seems strange to me, therefore, that Spinoza spends so little time fleshing out these notions However, Deleuze clues us that it is not until the beginning of book V that Spinoza actually elucidates upon how we can attain these notions An absolute whirlwind as Deleuze says of Spinoza of ideas Deleuze finds himself in the same awe as most readers of Spinoza the humility in his words gives way to the beautiful composition and entwinement of Deleuze himself and Spinoza One finds in this bookthan an expository text concerning the systemat of Spinoza s thought, but a living, breathing encounter with the Ethics a road map for renewed experience in light of Spinoza s radical thought If one wants to understand Deleuze, An absolute whirlwind as Deleuze says of Spinoza of ideas Deleuze finds himself in the same awe as most readers of Spinoza the humility in his words gives way to the beautiful composition and entwinement of Deleuze himself and Spinoza One finds in this bookthan an expository text concerning the systemat of Spinoza s thought, but a living, breathing encounter with the Ethics a road map for renewed experience in light of Spinoza s radical thought If one wants to understand Deleuze, it is indeed through Spinoza A specially bad introduction to Spinoza Please read Deleuze s semminar on Spinoza at Vicennes instead It presents the uniquely nietzschean reading of Spinoza that informs Deleuze work as a whole. This book is the easiest way to approach Spinoza that I m aware of I ve noticed that Spinoza is repeatedly referenced as a major influence by my favorite philosphers This book expertly conveys the subtle joy and peace that comes from viewing the world through a Spinozist lense.Oh, did I mention that it s short too lmao what if god is just nature haha only joking unless