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In Which Pictures Are Painted and Inferences Are DrawnRecently, I decided to get better acquainted with Kant in preparation for some readings in Hegel, Marx and other Continental Philosophers.I have collected some materials about this venture here reading this work, I also read and reviewed Roger Scruton s book which was shorter andaccessible approach to reading Kant has been to focus on secondary ma In Which Pictures Are Painted and Inferences Are DrawnRecently, I decided to get better acquainted with Kant in preparation for some readings in Hegel, Marx and other Continental Philosophers.I have collected some materials about this venture here reading this work, I also read and reviewed Roger Scruton s book which was shorter andaccessible approach to reading Kant has been to focus on secondary material written about him, rather than material written by him.Perhaps this reflects a fear of the difficulty of his concepts and prose However, it leaves me vulnerable to the subjectivity of the secondary author What approach did they take What did they focus on What did they omit Did they construe Kant through a subjective prism of their own Did they interpret Kant only within the system of philosophy that he created or did they interpret him within the broader context of philosophy as a whole Stephan K rner, who was a Professor of Philosophy at the Univeristy of Bristol and at Yale, writes with a knowledge of Kant s context, as well as views of his own He is at pains to explain Kant s philosophy clearly, while occasionally revealing a dry sense of humour.I still found this a demanding read While I did my best to understand the immediate subject matter, I found I had to explore its contextbroadly, in order to understand why what I was reading was significant.I ve tried to draw inferences from what I ve read If they re wrong, it s my fault, not that of the author This will not be my last disclaimer The Doors of Perception A Priori and A Posteriori Just about any summary of Kant starts with an explanation of two terms that are used to differentiate types of KnowledgeA priori from the earlier comes before and is therefore independent of Experience A priori knowledge doesn t depend on Experience for its validity It derives from ReasonA posteriori from the later comes after and therefore depends on Experience A posteriori knowledge depends on Experience for its validity It expresses an empirical fact It does not derive from Reason alone.My initial reaction So what Why should I care Heaven and Hell The Great Debate To answer these questions, you have to appreciate that Kant was contributing to a debate between two types of philosophy concerning Metaphysics Rationalism and Empiricism.Metaphysics can be loosely defined as the study of Being, Existence and Reality.It is often construed as meaning beyond or above physics or the material.While this is a misconstruction of the literal etymology of the word, it might help me to express my next pointRationalismregards Reason as the main source of knowledge Truth can only be determined by intellectual or deductive means, not sensory means Knowledge or truth is therefore a priori.To the extent that Metaphysics is a product of Reason, it might stand beyond or above the physical or material world.In contrast,Empiricismregards Sensory Experience and Evidence as the main source of knowledge It derives from interaction with the physical or material world.In Which Kant is Awakened by David HumeThe Scottish Empiricist philosopher, David Hume, was most skeptical about the Rationalist influence on Metaphysics.He asserted that Metaphysics is not properly a science and that, like natural science, the only solid foundation for the science of human nature must be laid on experience and observation Hume explicitly questioned the role of Reason as the source of knowledge and truth, and therefore the foundation of traditional Metaphysics.Kant found fault with both Rationalism and Empiricism He attempted to cherry pick what he regarded as the best aspects of each approach and construct a composite critical philosophy that avoided the flaws of both approaches.By doing so in an extremely methodical manner, he hoped to revive and rehabilitate Metaphysics, as well as vindicating its credibility as a robust branch of science.Yet, Kant famously gave Hume credit for awakening him from his dogmatic slumber.Analytic and Synthetic PropositionsKant also distinguished between Analytic and Synthetic Propositions or Judgements.He applied the distinction to Propositions that consisted of a Subject and a Predicate.An Analytic Proposition can be proved by resort to Logic or Reason alone i.e., without resort to Experience.For example, the Proposition All bachelors are unmarried is true by definition Linguistically, the word bachelor contains the word or concept unmarried It is not necessary to test the truth of the Proposition by Experience or Experiment in order to establish its truth.In contrast, the truth of a Synthetic Proposition such as All married men are unhappy cannot be established by Logic or Reason alone It would be necessary to resort to Experience or Experiment, and even then it would be hoped that it is not true, at least in all circumstances.Four Types of PropositionKant then joins these four terms to create four distinct combinations analytic a priori synthetic a priori analytic a posteriori synthetic a posteriori.The first exists wholly within the realm of Logic or Reason, the fourth within the realm of Experience.The third theoretically requires both Logic and Experience to prove its truth, which Kant considers to be self contradictory If it is true as a matter of Logic, it is not necessary to resort to Experience to establish its truth.Synthetic A Priori PropositionsKant then focuses on the second combination of Synthetic A Priori Propositions.K rner uses the proposition 5 7 12 to illustrate the concept.Kant argues that the truth of this proposition is not dependent on Experience and is therefore a priori.It is synthetic in the sense that the meaning of the predicate 12 is not intrinsically contained in or implied by the subject 5 7 The predicate or answer 12 is the result of a mathematical process that applies outside the framework of the sentence or proposition itself.The truth of Synthetic A Priori Propositions does not result from the internal logic or linguistics of the Proposition or from being tested by Experiment or Experience.As a result, by elimination, I infer that their truth derives from some mental apparatus of the mind such as the mathematical process in the above equation.Thus, Kant has asserted or proved that truth or knowledge can derive not just from Experience, but from the mind or Reason.As a result, he has effectively refuted a primary assertion of Empiricism However, he didn t reject the whole of Empiricism or embrace the whole of Rationalism Instead, he steered a middle ground between the two.This achievement was vital to Kant because he argued that Synthetic A Priori Propositions are the essence of Metaphysics They were the vehicle by which he rehabilitated Metaphysics.The Relationship with the Outside WorldKant s reasoning opened up scope to analyse how the mind thinks about or relates to objects in the outside world.Kant differentiated between three cognitive faculties of the mind or Cognition Understanding Judgement and Reason.Kant accepts that objects in the material world exist and are empirically real However, he speaks of objects being given to us via our senses We then process what we sense and perceiveBy means of sense, objects are given to us, and sense alone provides us with perceptions Our senses are the source of information or data about objects Our minds perceive what we have sensed However, Perception is a passive process.Having perceived an object, our mind sets about understanding it, which is an active process of Thinking or Judgement We do this by applying concepts or Categories of Pure Understanding , which are characteristics or Presentations of objects in general as opposed to particulars of an actual object that we have sensed and perceived.The Categories are not abstracted from perception They are not just the product of objects They are the product of our minds They are characteristics or presentations which are given, remembered and combined perceptual data The Categories are transcendental , because they transcend individual objects and are a condition of knowledge of all objects Collectively, they are forms or ways of seeing, like spectacles, which our minds superimpose over the top of what we perceive.When we apply a Category to an actual object e.g., an elephant , we connect or unify or contract many presentations or characteristics a manifold into the concept or Category.If it fits or coordinates, the unification results in us understanding that we have seen In a way, in our example, our mind registers an elephantConnection is the representation of the synthetic unity of the manifold Reason is the source of the concepts and principles that allow us to make Judgements Reason defines the formal conditions of truth In a way, it sits above Judgements and is the arbiter of truth in all Judgements Space and TimeKant considers that space and time are not properties or characteristics of objects in the outside world, but are contributed by the mind of the perceiving subject.Again, they are like the spectacles through which we perceive the outside world We can t remove our spectacles We can only see objects through the subjective framework of space and time Therefore, we can never see objects as they are in themselves We change them by seeing them The world is moulded in the process of our apprehension of it However, the appearances of objects are not mere illusions We can differentiate between what perceptions are real and what are illusions, just as a Realist can.Kant is, therefore, not strictly an Idealist or a Subjectivist Cognition, Pleasure and DesireKant also differentiated between three faculties of the mind as a whole Cognition Pleasure and Pain and Desire.As illustrated above, the application of the Categories is an essential part of the cognitive process.The faculty of Desire is the capacity to do or to refrain from doing as one pleases.If it involves a consciousness of what actions are necessary to achieve an object, it involves a Choice.If there is no such consciousness, it involves a Wish.The subject matter of Desire e.g., what pleases us in particular and what choices are available to us is determined within our Reason and is described as an act of Will Having determined the nature of our Desire and how to attain it, Pleasure and Pain are determined by the extent to which our actions attain the object of our Desire Pleasure is the achievement of a purpose.We are free, if our Will can cause our object to be attained, without ourselves being caused to do so e.g., by duty or force.In the context of Aesthetic Judgements, Kant sees pleasure as deriving from beauty, which is a result of a Judgement that an object is beautiful The pleasure derives from the compliance of the object with concepts of form There is a harmony of object and formal concepts.Good Will Hunting Duty, Will, Morality and Religion Kant used the above analysis of Cognition to set out a critical philosophy of Pure Reason.When he applies a similar analysis to Moral Philosophy or Ethics, he refers to it as a critical philosophy of Practical Reason.Kant uses the term Will in relation to Desire, but it is also essential to an understanding of his Moral Philosophy.Will involves the choice of action required to achieve a Desire or Object.Not every action or choice is morally good Kant uses the term Good Will to describe morally good conduct or a morally good person.Any decision made by a Good Will must be determined by the Moral Law or Duty and for the sake of complying with the Moral Law in its own right It is not done in order to achieve a subjective Desire or Pleasure or to be seen to be Virtuous Moral Law is a limitation on Desire Good Will requires a perception of and compliance with Duty.Kant defines this Duty as the Categorical Imperative , to act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law without contradiction The Imperative must not be determined by its potential application in any particular conditions or to any particular person It must be universal in application, hence the moral authority of the Law or Imperative.It s important that this definition of Good Will does not resort to God or Religion for its essence or its authorityMorality needs the idea neither of another being above man for man to recognise his duty, nor of another motive apart from the Law for him to fulfil his DutyMorality thus needs religion in no way for morality s sake, but is by virtue of the pure practical reason self sufficient This doesn t mean that Kant didn t believe in God or that he did not purport to believe in God.He does not purport to prove the existence of God by means of Pure Reason Instead, he relies on Practical or Moral Reason, in effect to declare God the Ideal of Pure ReasonWe ought to endeavour to promote the highest good which therefore must be possible Therefore we must postulate the existence of a cause of the whole of nature, which is different from nature, and which contains the ground of the exact proportionateness of happiness and morality According to K rner, Kant believes that God is such a cause and that his argument is that the highest good is not realisable unless God exists In other words, man can promote the highest good only if God exists Facts, Opinion and FaithI can t say I understand this, but I wonder whether the argument proceeds like this God is the highest Good the highest Good exists therefore, God exists Anyway, the precise logical proof of the existence of God doesn t really matter to me I believe it is a matter of faith, not logic, and that Kant was expressly working in the realm of rational faith.Ultimately, what he created was a coherent and robust system for analyzing three types of Knowledge Matters of Fact Matters of Opinion including Aesthetics and Matters of Faith.Kant Help Falling in Love with YouSo what did I get out of this venture I wanted to overcome my apprehension about reading Kant.I wanted to obtain and elucidate a simplistic overview of Kant s basic ideas, both to help me and to hopefully help you.I wanted to understand why many see Kant as responsible for a Copernican Revolution in Philosophy.I wanted to lay the foundation for an appreciation of the influence of Kant s analysis of Understanding, Judgement, Reason, Desire, Pleasure, Morality and Faith on Hegel and Continental Philosophers.My journey with Kant isn t finished However, if nothing else, I think I ve overcome my apprehension, and I m ready to read on.This is the End of Our Elaborate Plans, My FriendIf you ve read this far, thank you.K rner ends his book with the hope thatmy exposition, brief and inadequate as in the nature of the case it has had to be, has not greatly misrepresented the thought of a very great thinker I would like to amplify this wish in relation to the thoughts expressed in my review, because they are briefer,inadequate and infinitely less informed than either Kant s or K rner s I m not new to reading Kant I ve read two of his shorter works, and I appreciate how he has caused me to transform my views regarding ethics I like to believe that his precepts have been influential in guiding me to become a better person Kant, however, has been known to be an unbelievably dense writer I have had firsthand experience with his Groundwork on the Metaphysics of Morals and his Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics Both books are less than a hundred pages each despite that, h I m not new to reading Kant I ve read two of his shorter works, and I appreciate how he has caused me to transform my views regarding ethics I like to believe that his precepts have been influential in guiding me to become a better person Kant, however, has been known to be an unbelievably dense writer I have had firsthand experience with his Groundwork on the Metaphysics of Morals and his Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics Both books are less than a hundred pages each despite that, however, each book takes longer than two moderately sized novels featuring straightforward prose at about 300 pages each I have believed that reading an introduction to his magnum opus, Critique of Pure Reason would lead me to an easier time in dealing with said work How wrong I was.Korner, despite the fact that he has written a lucid account of Kant s philosophy, still has had to use Kantian terminology and thought In spite of his illuminating, andmodern examples, my pace in reading his work of introduction has been as limaceous as my reading of Kant s shorter works It has taken me two weeks of plodding and procrastination in order to read an introduction to Kantian philosophy At least I ve realized that I still don t have what it takes to tackle Kant s Critiques Reading this book has been anything but fruitless I believe that even Kant s harshest critic cannot disagree with the fact that modern critical philosophy exists largely because of Kant s works He has prefaced Godel s incompleteness theorem in one of his expositions in his Critique of Pure Reason The logical maxim cannot become a fundamental principle of pure reason unless we assume that if the condition is given, the whole sequence of subordinate conditions, which consequently is itself unconditioned, is also given Not only that, Kant also thought of the foundation of Hegelian dialectics In contrast to dialectic, however, he calls his contrapuntal thoughts to be antinomies These antinomies later resolve into synthetic statements, either by being true contradictions, or through contradictions that resolve when one realizes that they apply to different ideas The man remains to be a genius that most people regard with respect I also like that he believes in a God which he considers to be ens realissimum Ultimately, there must be an unconditioned being that can represent ALL possible predicates That Being is both a circle and a square He is a being that cannot be incompatible with any other predicate There are many reasons on why one should read Kant, but I just can t stomach another minute of his dense thought within the next few months Perhaps I m still too young I can t get enough Kant not written by Kant.Though I am not digging this cover portrait of the K nigsberg Colossus as a creepily malevolent and bewigged Gollum armed with ring hungry eyes. Decent overview of Kantian philosophy From the metaphysics, through to Ethics, culminating in Kantian aesthetics. A concise just over 200 pages , clearly written introduction targeting the non specialist it covers most key areas of the three Critiques in an accessible manner with good examples illustrating some of Kant s major points Korner raises brief criticisms and includes a short appendicized overview of Kant s life one of the first commentaries geared to the English speaking reader after the second world war One aim of the undertaking of this book has been to show that no one who takes these problems or indeed philosophy seriously can without much loss to himself ignore Kant s teaching. *Download Book ☔ Kant ↡ La philosophie de Kant Kant tudie les Ides de la raison me, Dieu, libert dans une partie importante de la Critique de la raison pure, partie nomme Dialectique transcendantale elle dsigne une critique dvoilant la trompeuse apparence des prtentions de la raison quand elle s efforce de quitter le terrain de l exprience pour aborder la sphre de la pense pure, se croyant tort indpendante du domaine phnomnal et Emmanuel Kant Babelio Emmanuel Kant Immanuel en allemand est un philosophe allemand, fondateur de l idalisme transcendantal Encyclopdie Larousse en ligne Emmanuel KantKant vie, uvres rsumes et bibliographie de KantEmmanuel Kant tous les livres fnac Dcouvrez tout l univers Emmanuel Kant la fnac En poursuivant votre navigation, vous acceptez la politique Cookies, le dpt de cookies et technologies similaires tiers ou non ainsi que le croisement avec des donnes que vous nous avez fournies pour amliorer votre exprience, la diffusion des contenus et publicits personnaliss par notre enseigne ou par des partenaires au regardKant ac grenoble Kant est n Knigsberg Prusse orientale en , dans une famille modeste Il ne quittera jamais sa ville natale Il reoit une ducation pitiste Aprs des tudes de thologie et de philosophie, il devient prcepteur enEmmanuel Kant,citations et penses, ses plus bellesEmmanuel Kant Philosophe, Retrouvez ici des citations de Emmanuel Kant venant de ses essais et penses philosophiques Emmanuel Kant Immanuel en allemand est un philosophe allemand, fondateur de l idalisme transcendantal N leavrilKnigsberg, capitale de la Prusse Orientale, il y est mort lefvrier citations d Emmanuel Kant Ses plus belles citationscitations les plus clbres d Emmanuel Kant issues de livres paroles discours et entretiens Pour chaque citation, la source est donne L esprit de Emmanuel Kant travers ses crits, ses paroles EMMANUEL KANTcitations et phrases, ses plus bellesListe des citations d Emmanuel Kant classes par thmatique La meilleure citation d Emmanuel Kant prfre des internautes Retrouvez toutes les phrases clbres d Emmanuel Kant parmi une slection de de citations clbres provenant d ouvrages, d interviews ou de discours Lisez le TOPdes citations d Emmanuel Kant pour mieux comprendre sa vie, ses actes et sa philosophie