#FREE PDF ä Ideas That Matter: A Personal Guide For The 21st Century × eBook or E-pub free

Visto l andazzo che ha preso la politica italiana in questo preciso momento storico, ho voluto studiare qualcosa sul significato che questa parola ha avuto nel tempo Niente di speciale, a dire il vero Non ho frequentato uno dei tanti seminari che si tengono in giro, partecipato a convegni di fondazioni, iscritto a scuole di partito, partecipato ad assemblee Mi sono soltanto riletto la voce Politica cos come la tratta Anthony C Grayling, docente inglese di filosofia a Londra e Oxford, auto Visto l andazzo che ha preso la politica italiana in questo preciso momento storico, ho voluto studiare qualcosa sul significato che questa parola ha avuto nel tempo Niente di speciale, a dire il vero Non ho frequentato uno dei tanti seminari che si tengono in giro, partecipato a convegni di fondazioni, iscritto a scuole di partito, partecipato ad assemblee Mi sono soltanto riletto la voce Politica cos come la tratta Anthony C Grayling, docente inglese di filosofia a Londra e Oxford, autore di un recente libro sulle idee che contano nel XXI secolo Un utile guida contenente oltre un centinaio di argomenti trattati in maniera quanto mai sintetica, con una esauriente bibliografia per ogni idea.L autore scrive che le idee sono gli ingranaggi che fanno marciare quel juggernaut un grosso camion che la storia Capirle, significa poter salire su di esso, piuttosto che esserne stritolati, sotto le sue ruote Un libro che celebra la forza delle idee che possono cambiare il mondo Idee che cambiano, evolvono, decadono e si trasformano Dalla filosofia alla religione, dal femminismo al relativismo, dall assolutismo alla xenofobia Due tre pagine per ogni argomento, un aiuto chiaro e sintetico per chi ha gi le sue idee, per chi non ne ha e ne ha bisogno, per chi le vuole discutere.L autore non si fa scrupolo, ovviamente, di chiarire nel corso del libro quali sono le sue idee Lo dichiara apertamente, in diverse occasioni, mettendo le carte in tavola Come quando si dichiara filosoficamente ateo convinto Sul capitolo della Politica devo dire che stato onesto e sintetico anche se commette una grave omissione nel suo saggio, e per tutto il libro, non menziona una sola volta Machiavelli Il grande fiorentino non trova nemmeno un posticino nell elenco dei nomi Grave omissione a mio modesto parere Lui s che di politica se ne intendeva Gli basterebbe liquidare il tutto con un sorriso, come in questo post al link quando, tempo fa, ne ho parlato Ma questo un altro discorso Torniamo alla politica.Molti ritengono che la politica sia l arte del possibile Anche io lo penso Qui invece l autore inglese dice che l arte del quasi impossibile in quanto il processo per mezzo del quale i gruppi, le comunit , le nazioni, i cittadini di uno stato cercano di decidere cosa fare, come le cose dovrebbero essere fatte, come i beni comuni dovrebbero essere distribuiti, in che maniera le relazioni tra autorit e potere dovrebbero essere bilanciate, chi dovrebbe avere il potere, come questo dovrebbe essere gestito, per quanto tempo e fino a che punto A causa del fatto che ci sono idee diverse, oltre interessi e opinioni in ogni gruppo, la politica l arte del compromesso, in maniera da controllare chi deve prendere decisioni e dare seguito ad esse, assicurando continuit ed autorit Tutto questo vale sia per una democrazia che per una dittatura Gli obiettivi sono gli stessi Sono i mezzi che differiscono Importanti sono i problemi su come l autorit viene acquisita dai vari protagonisti e quindi mantenuta Questo sembra essere il punto focale di tutto.Non mi addentro nella successiva disamina delle idee che egli fa del pensiero di esimi politici e letterati Dopo Platone, Confucio, Aristotele, egli parla succintamente di Locke, Hobbes e Rousseau Non potevano mancare John Stuart Mill e Carlo Marx Man mano che ci si avvicina alla fine dell articolo, ci si accorge che la parola di partenza, anzi l idea da cui l autore era partito per definire cosa fosse la politica , si diluita in altre idee, alle quali egli rimanda il malcapitato lettore comunismo, democrazia, fascismo, liberalismo, libert , marxismo, socialismo, totalitarismo Davvero un ginepraio che imprigiona soffocando il povero lettore che aveva dimenticato di essere cittadino e soggetto politico A questo punto mi sono ricordato di essere italiano Mi sono ritrovato nel pantano in cui si trova la nostra politica italiana Sono corso a rileggermi il post sul sorriso di Machiavelli che ho citato prima Mi sono accorto di essere, come uomo, cittadino, elettore di questo Bel Paese, sotto un attacco continuo, sotto il fuoco di tutte quelle idee che ho appena menzionato Ad una certa et le cose della vita , n tanto meno quelle della politica , non possono essere pi prese seriamente altrimenti ci si rimette anzitempo la pelle Ho ripreso in mano Il Principe , lasciando l inglese Greyling Per difendermi e sopravvivere in questa palude che diventata l Italia Per sorridere prima di me stesso, poi degli altri e del mondo Ho scelto per questo Niccol e vi assicuro di essere in buona compagnia Mio Padre, buonanima, soleva dire La politica di genere femminile Sia detto senza offesa per il gentil sesso Qui, tra tanti casini, non si sa chi la fa peggio.Dal mio blog The sections I ve read are very pithy I was particularly taken with his thesis that science and religion are incompatible, competing world views I agree, but he does not address two important concomitants of his argument that religion is a natural human extension of a human need to intellectually project into the future, to know and understand the world in order to predict the future to some degree and evenimportantly that spirituality is a very different ball of wax than religion Many The sections I ve read are very pithy I was particularly taken with his thesis that science and religion are incompatible, competing world views I agree, but he does not address two important concomitants of his argument that religion is a natural human extension of a human need to intellectually project into the future, to know and understand the world in order to predict the future to some degree and evenimportantly that spirituality is a very different ball of wax than religion Many are religious with much sense of spirituality and many are spiritual without being religious, including many scientists Now I m neither spiritual nor religious but it seems to be a huge lacuna in this book.I was tickled by his take on vegetarianism that all the meat we eat is, perforce, rotten and full of bacterial waste ending up as a tasty morsel none the less I would guess that he is a vegetarian, or else that he has a very wry sense of humor I m curious.I would have thought he would do a wonderful job of explicating on the gaia hypothesis, briefly it would have been fun to read He left that one out too Maybe just as well to not give it credence #FREE PDF Ü Ideas That Matter: A Personal Guide For The 21st Century ó This text celebrates the power of ideas thought can, and does, change the world And, in turn, ideas evolve This is Grayling s personal and heartfelt guide to the ideas, past and present, that shape our world It covers religion, philosophy, scientific theory and political movements The author of this volume, who is a Professor of Philosophy at the University of London, describes the book as a dictionary of ideas that are detailed in two to ten page entries ranging from Absolutism to Zeitgist.To break down this book into simple terms, the 21st Century is being shaped by three dominant concepts that developed and emerged during the 20th fundamentalism, globalism and bioethics, while the 20th century was determined by philosophical currents that had developed in the centur The author of this volume, who is a Professor of Philosophy at the University of London, describes the book as a dictionary of ideas that are detailed in two to ten page entries ranging from Absolutism to Zeitgist.To break down this book into simple terms, the 21st Century is being shaped by three dominant concepts that developed and emerged during the 20th fundamentalism, globalism and bioethics, while the 20th century was determined by philosophical currents that had developed in the century before it, particularly Marxism, Feminism and Existentialism From each of these concepts also flows a multitude of subconcepts, and in the interest of brevity, I d like to focus on thecurrent concepts.Fundamentalism, as a first example, is defined as a form of religion in which adherence to religious text is absolute and not subject to compromise or alternative interpretation The term fundamentalist may also be used to describe someone who assumes an absolutist political ideology, but religion is acommon association Fundamentalists have been around since the days when witches were burned at the stake in the 16th century, and they presented strong opposition to the Enlightenment in the 18th, and have attempted to block advances in the sciences as far back as Galileo As the current century unfolds, it is debatable whether fundamentalism is thriving, on its last legs, or somewhere in between A reader of this volume can refer to additional entries to further their understanding of fundamentalism by looking up Christianity, Enlightenment, Islam, Religion and Tolerance Globalism the idea that the world is becoming smaller andinterconnected, is another concept that was well underway before the new millennium began, and is complemented by entries such as Biodiversity, Multiculturalism, Westernization, Economics, and the Internet Bioethics is a fascinating entry that offers ethical questions raised by the rapid advance of the biological sciences and medicine This includes such hot button topics as cloning and euthanasia, also speculating the question of what rights exist for future people, on various levels Therapeutic cloning is described as a means for patients of the future to no longer need a place on a waiting list for organ transplants If medical advances prevail, patients may instead be able to grow fully functioning organs, even hearts and brains, out of healthy cells already in their bodies Medical ethics also addresses how the well beings of individuals fit into a world where looking after the welfare of animals and the environment are also prompting a great deal of ethical concern An entry on animal rights addresses part of this issue This volume also explores the origins of the universe, of planet Earth and of life on it The Big Bang Theory offers the idea of an expanding universe that came into existence 13 billion years ago within fractions of a second, while the concept known as the Anthropic Principle states that we as human beings occupy a fortunate and preferred time and place within the universe, and that the constants of nature are somehow fine tuned for the production of life, so that we may serve our designated purpose that is, designated according to this principle of observing the Earth and the universe Biopoiesis is the process by which living matter had first emerged from non living matter in the early history of the Earth, believed to have happened as a result of a chemical interaction over three billion years ago when the planet was just a billion years old I remain optimistic about advances in medicine that will be possible if bioethical philosophy were to intervene in the area of health care so that medicine is practiced in ways that help rather than hinder the well being of humankind as a whole Health has become a global issue as well, especially as the world has becomeinterconnected, and the world s health care systems are regularly analyzed and compared As someone who has deep seated apprehension about organized religion, I found the entries in this volume exploring the origins of the universe offer a strong counter to dangerous fundamentalist ideologies that claim the absolute inerrancy of scripture, while clinging to an unshakable belief in an all powerful supernatural being that remains scientifically unsupportable due to a lack of actual evidence.This volume has enabled me to position my mind so that I can approach writing with a full awareness of the world around me and the dominant concepts and thought processes currently on the forefront of today s minds Reading this volume has helped me to see these and other subjects in a different,expansive light Well written reference of philosophical terms and concepts Kind of sad the author could not set aside their not so subtle bias against religion and, in particular, Christianity Reminded me of Paul s encounter with the wise Greek philosophers of his day. Succinct, sharp, intelligent and worldly wiseGrayling has made an effort here to distinguish between ideas that were once formative such as free will, determinism and perhaps angels dancing on a pin which he has left out , and ideas that either are newly shaping the world, such as the Internet and artificial intelligence, or old ideas with new influences, such as democracy and history The book consists of mini essays on 130 ideas from absolutism to Zeitgeist, covering subjects as diverse as Succinct, sharp, intelligent and worldly wiseGrayling has made an effort here to distinguish between ideas that were once formative such as free will, determinism and perhaps angels dancing on a pin which he has left out , and ideas that either are newly shaping the world, such as the Internet and artificial intelligence, or old ideas with new influences, such as democracy and history The book consists of mini essays on 130 ideas from absolutism to Zeitgeist, covering subjects as diverse as string theory and romanticism Grayling writes well and displays a sharp and considered intelligence that make this book a pleasure to read He doesn t mealy mouth around what he sees as cant, error, willful ignorance or just rank stupidity But he is eminently fair and not interested in inciting any riots.It is clear from reading the entries I read most of them that Grayling is a philosopher first and a historian and social critic second He is the author a couple of dozen books, mostly on philosophic subjects such as reason, meaning, Bishop Berkeley, Wittgenstein, philosophic logic and so on Some of the ideas on philosophic subjects presented here such as consequentialism, deontology, and verificationism were a bit beyond the reach of this reader, but then that would be my problem On the subjects about which I have some knowledge I found his treatment interesting, enlightening and mostly agreeable.The closing paragraph on communism may serve as an example of the sort of deep understanding that Grayling brings to his diverse subject matter China is the only country to try the experiment of a capitalist economy with a communist style unelected central party command government Despite that party being called the Communist Party of China, it is in almost all functional respects a mere reprise of the authoritarian imperial government commonplace throughout China s history In this it is paradigmatic of what communism has been wherever it has been put into effect in the modern world most of the experiments in this regard have failed in what, in historical terms, is the blink of an eye p 88 Or, consider this from the entry on consumerism The joke phrase retail therapy used to denote the restoration of good spirits that a shopping expedition induces usually the forage among brand name goods in a variety of shops, with a few triumphantly found bargains or exactly suitable items is in fact an accurately descriptive phrase More to the point, the word forage is also speakingly accurate if anthropological models of hunter gatherer societies are correct, foraging among bushes and roots for edibles was an important task for women while their menfolk were away on probably often unsuccessful hunting expeditions Grayling is particularly sharp on religions, believing that overall they doharm than good He has entires on Buddhism, Catholicism, Christianity, creationism, fundamentalism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Protestantism, and religion in general Typically he presents a brief history, highlights the religion s major tenets, and then sums up and gives his opinion In the final paragraph on Catholicism he writes For a thousand years it stood at the centre of European history, for good and ill both but in the judgement of this writer, mostly the latter On Islam he concludes, it is the faith which at present anyway has an extremely violent fringe from which murder has come, continues to come, and can all too readily come in response to perceived insult or threat p 194 Interesting in this regard is this from Grayling s entry on the fallacies of informal logic, where he is referring to the fallacy called argumentum ad baculum, which is the appeal to force believe what I say do what I tell you or I will beat you up this, though it puts the matterbluntly than usual, is the essence of divine command moralities p 219 Grayling even finds fault with deism calling it a fudge reached for He writes that to answer the question why does the universe exist by saying because Fred made it obviously does not constitute an answer, for who or what is Fred He adds, T he arbitrary, ad hoc invocation of something to serve as the first term of a putative explanation is no good, but neither is substituting the word God for Fred for a substitute is all it is p 320 Spoken like a true philosopher On science It is a magnificent achievement of the human intellect, indeed it is the greatest of all mankind s achievementseven though some of what science has done or rather, has been made to do in theperverted interest of politics and war cannot be regard as good p 320 The entry on vegetarianism might very well serve as either a satisfying rant or as providing material for PET activists, so very strongly and effectively does Grayling express his opposition to meat eating.I found it curious that Grayling has an entry on sociobiology but doesn t even use thecontemporary term evolutionary psychology He might have explained why.The 130 if I counted right entries are in alphabetical order There is a short bibliography arranged according to the entries, and an index I think it is a fine thing that Professor Grayling took the trouble to write this book His scholarship and wisdom are evident throughout Dennis Littrell, author of The World Is Not as We Think It Is Read about half this book Interesting perspective on concepts and ideas, however it islike a dictionary, too much information to retain on each topic. Used in some of my interdisciplinary seminars in the past. Written with a style, eloquence and thought that makes even the most complex ideas accessible, this is another masterful collection of writings from one of my very favourite writers This isn t simply an encyclopaedia, but AC Grayling s personal introduction to some of the richness of human thought and invention from Absolutism to Zeitgeist and most of everything in between The essay on Vegetarianism sticks out like a sore thumb because unlike most of Grayling s other writings, which whilst not Written with a style, eloquence and thought that makes even the most complex ideas accessible, this is another masterful collection of writings from one of my very favourite writers This isn t simply an encyclopaedia, but AC Grayling s personal introduction to some of the richness of human thought and invention from Absolutism to Zeitgeist and most of everything in between The essay on Vegetarianism sticks out like a sore thumb because unlike most of Grayling s other writings, which whilst not always neutral see any of the sections regarding religion are always well argued, there is an entire paragraph dedicated to how disgusting meat is to eat that appeals too much to emotion for my liking but that s just one paragraph among hundreds of fantastic ones.For anyone interested in the world around them, this is a must read as is anything else AC Grayling has written, I can t stress that enough If you take this work at face value as, take my word for it, you should , don t read into it the expectations or desires that you might have with regards to it This is almost an enumeration of ideas and by that, for example, the author means cloning, fundamentalism, neoconservatism, Islam, Judaism, Christianity, postmodernism, utopia, war, zeitgeist, just to name a few that have influenced the world in the space of the 2oth Century and are still applicable to the 21st, by their emergence If you take this work at face value as, take my word for it, you should , don t read into it the expectations or desires that you might have with regards to it This is almost an enumeration of ideas and by that, for example, the author means cloning, fundamentalism, neoconservatism, Islam, Judaism, Christianity, postmodernism, utopia, war, zeitgeist, just to name a few that have influenced the world in the space of the 2oth Century and are still applicable to the 21st, by their emergence or continued development through a general shift or direction Do not expect it to go into depth it doesn t, it s not an analysis of the ideas, but a presentation However, very useful for someone interested in anything culture and science related, in conflicts and conflicting ideas