( EPUB ) ☨ Bottled Lightning: Superbatteries, Electric Cars, and the New Lithium Economy ☾ MOBI eBook or Kindle ePUB free

Fletcher provides a good overview of the history of the battery, the intellectual landscape around the technology and some useful I was there reporting on lithium mining I was hoping forscience and economics and less tit for tat about the intellectual property games that went on behind the scenes.The most powerful piece of the book is the last few pages where Fletcher describes the successful roll outs of the Volt and Leaf Then he tries to bring it all back home by channeling Secty of Fletcher provides a good overview of the history of the battery, the intellectual landscape around the technology and some useful I was there reporting on lithium mining I was hoping forscience and economics and less tit for tat about the intellectual property games that went on behind the scenes.The most powerful piece of the book is the last few pages where Fletcher describes the successful roll outs of the Volt and Leaf Then he tries to bring it all back home by channeling Secty of Energy Chu as a country we have ceased to be the global industrial leader and have allowed the cleantech industries solar, wind, batteries, basic energy research among others to be taken over by the Chinese We are not leaders, we are consumers In Fletcher s words If another country leads that industrial revolution, then, all things being equal, the result will still be good for the planet Americans will just be buying solar panels, carbon capture technology and advanced batteries from overseasa failure to participate in what promises to be one of the greatest industries of the coming century A solid book, the author visited with battery manufacturers, car companies, research labs and traveled to Bolivia and Chile to research this book It left me optomistic regarding the future of electric vehicles and our ability to overcome the technical hurdles. BatteriesEach cell in a battery has a negative electrode anode and a positive electrode cathode separated by a liquid or solid called the electrolyte A group of one orcells connected together is called a battery Originally, batteries were not rechargeable, but somerecent batteries are rechargeable the nickel cadmium and nickel metal hydride batteries Two problems with these batteries are a they lose energy capacity when not fully run down prior to charging, and b they lo BatteriesEach cell in a battery has a negative electrode anode and a positive electrode cathode separated by a liquid or solid called the electrolyte A group of one orcells connected together is called a battery Originally, batteries were not rechargeable, but somerecent batteries are rechargeable the nickel cadmium and nickel metal hydride batteries Two problems with these batteries are a they lose energy capacity when not fully run down prior to charging, and b they lose charge when not in use During the 1990s a new kind of rechargeable battery was developed that did not suffer from these problems It is called the lithium ion battery, and is the main subject of this book Exxon Research and EngineeringWhile at Exxon Research and Engineering, Michael Stanley Whittingham developed the first rechargeable lithium battery It had a titanium disulfide cathode and a lithium aluminum anode Bob Hamlen figured out how to manufacture it at Exxon s facility in Branchburg, New Jersey The battery was first used in digital watches in the 1970s Moli EnergyThis rechargeable battery was developed by Moli Energy, a Canadian British Columbia company named after the elements molybdenum and lithium They replaced the titanium in Exxon s battery by molybdenum Molybdenum disulfide is cheaper and easier to work with than titanium disulfide Starting in 1988, the batteries were used in NTT mobile phones One battery in a hundred thousand caught fire The problem was not caught in testing, because the testers did not think of testing under the five day discharge, ten hour recharge cycle that the phone was subjected to in actual use Lithium Cobalt OxideIn 1979 John Bannister Goodenough of Oxford University developed a lithium ion battery with a lithium cobalt oxide cathode and a lithium anode Goodenough collaborated with scientists and engineers at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment in Harwell, England Harwell s scientists had given him verbal assurances that he would receive a share of the royalties, but when he showed up to sign the paperwork, Harwell s lawyers were not willing to give him or Oxford University any share of the royalties But Goodenough signed anyway, because no one else was interested in commercializing his technology Compact Power Lithium Manganese OxideCompact Power of Troy, Michigan developed a battery based on the lithium manganese oxide research of Michael Thackeray John Goodenough at Oxford University Cobalt is toxic, andexpensive than manganese The batteries have high power and high energy density CPI is owned by LG Chemical of South Korea The batteries are used in the Chevy Volt plug in hybrid car GM tested battery aging using a pack cycler to artificially accelerate the aging process GM s earlier electric car, the EV1, used lead acid batteries, which were very heavy Sony s Carbon AnodeIn the 1990s Sony developed a rechargeable lithium ion battery with a carbon anode, instead of Goodenough s metallic lithium anode They called it a lithium ion battery, to distinguish it from a lithium battery, which had the reputation for catching fire Further development of lithium ion batteries usually keeps Sony s carbon anode, and instead plays with the chemical composition of the cathode Lithium Iron PhosphateA new type of lithium ion battery was developed in the 1990s, the lithium iron phosphate battery In this battery, the cathode is made of lithium iron phosphate also called lithium ferrous phosphate In 1993, John Goodenough, now at the University of Texas at Austin, and his student Akshaya Padhi, started the development of the lithium iron phosphate battery They ran into some problems with electrical conductivity They licensed their technology to Michel Armand of Hydro Qu bec, who introduced a carbon coating to improve the electrical conductivity and was able to produced a working lithium iron phosphate battery Lithium iron phosphate batteries have higher energy density, longer lifetimes and aresafe than lithium cobalt oxide Lithium WarsA123 Systems developed and marketed a similar lithium iron phosphate battery, which they claimed increased electrical conductivity not by using a carbon coating, but by doping the cathode with niobium and zirconium A patent war started This is a complicated story The chemistry itself, on the cause of the electrical conductivity enhancement, is still not clear, so there is no point in describing the legal battles Tesla RoadsterTesla designed their car so that the cells of the battery were separated from one another So if one cell catches fire, it will not ignite any neighboring cells Starts with the invention of the battery and the hundreds of different chemicals that have been investigated as constituents and proceeds through the many iterations of the electric car that have so far failed Fletcher then explains why lithium batteries are superior to prior versions and looks into the current research into the batteries that may one day be able to compete with the convenience of gas powered engines He finishes the book with a description of the current status of the lithiu Starts with the invention of the battery and the hundreds of different chemicals that have been investigated as constituents and proceeds through the many iterations of the electric car that have so far failed Fletcher then explains why lithium batteries are superior to prior versions and looks into the current research into the batteries that may one day be able to compete with the convenience of gas powered engines He finishes the book with a description of the current status of the lithium extraction industry in Chile and Bolivia This is a nice, readable introduction to the technology and economics that have conspired to make electric cars untenable in the past and what s changing right now ( EPUB ) ☳ Bottled Lightning: Superbatteries, Electric Cars, and the New Lithium Economy ⚐ The sleek electronic tools that have become so ubiquitous laptops, iPods, eReaders, and smart phones are all powered by lithium batteries Chances are you ve got some lithium on your person right now But aside from powering a mobile twenty first century lifestyle, the third element on the periodic table may also hold the key to an environmentally sustainable, oil independent future From electric cars to a smart power grid that can actually store electricity, letting us harness the powers of the sun and the wind and use them when we need them, lithium a metal half as dense as water, created in the first minutes after the Big Bang and found primarily in some of the most uninhabitable places on earth is the key to setting us on a path toward a low carbon energy future It s also shifting the geopolitical chessboard in profound waysIn Bottled Lightning, the science reporter Seth Fletcher takes us on a fascinating journey, from the salt flats of Bolivia to the labs of MIT and Stanford, from the turmoil at GM to cutting edge lithium ion battery start ups, introducing us to the key players and ideas in an industry with the power to reshape the world Lithium is the thread that ties together many key stories of our time the environmental movement the American auto industry, staking its revival on the electrification of cars and trucks the struggle between first world countries in need of natural resources and the impoverished countries where those resources are found and the overwhelming popularity of the portable, Internet connected gadgets that are changing the way we communicate With nearly limitless possibilities, the promise of lithium offers new hope to a foundering American economy desperately searching for a green tech boom to revive it This was an interesting book, but I was hoping to read less about cars andabout lithium. Nothing symbolizes the greatness of Americathan the road trip When I was a kid in the 1970s I went on road trips family style disfunctional family style at least each summer My brother and I would travel cross country to Colorado, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Ohio, Kentucky, Missouri either with our biological father in his Econoline van or with my step father and mother in our Dodge Ramcharger Each trip was an adventure, stops to go swimming, tubeing, bicycling, camping, fishing, to see bal Nothing symbolizes the greatness of Americathan the road trip When I was a kid in the 1970s I went on road trips family style disfunctional family style at least each summer My brother and I would travel cross country to Colorado, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Ohio, Kentucky, Missouri either with our biological father in his Econoline van or with my step father and mother in our Dodge Ramcharger Each trip was an adventure, stops to go swimming, tubeing, bicycling, camping, fishing, to see ball games, amusement parks, go cart and water parks, visit distant relatives, eat bologna sandwiches with Pringles and slurp 7 ups on the side of the road By 1984 I got my own driver s license and began road tripping with friends, to state parks, county fairs, R.E.M concerts, to the Iowa border where a friend knew of a dive strip club that let 18 year olds in, to the Wisconsin border to buy fireworks, to New Orleans French Quarter, to tailgate parties in the parking lots of college stadiums By the 1990s I was taking road trips with girlfriends, romantic getaways to small tourist towns with antique shops, ski resorts and almost fine dining My honeymoon in 2005 was a road trip to Knoxville Tennessee where my bride now ex wife and I explored the winding roads and small towns around the Smokey Mountains, camped deep in the woods, hiked trails and listened to bluegrass music in small bars The summer of 2010Now I have a 3 year old daughter and a 5 year old son who I would like nothingthan to have experience the wonders of the American road trip This was the summer that I was planning to take my curious little munchkins on their first American road trip adventure, through small towns, visiting arts and crafts fairs, music festivals and eating in ma and pa diners But with gas prices well over 4 dollars a gallon and an economy crippled by wasteful government spending in recent foreign wars for oil, this dream of a summer road trip seemslike fantasy When I sat down to try and work out a budget for this road trip the reality hit me and it became too depressing to even think about my kids would not be able to experience the an American road trip adventure Not this year at least, and maybe never But wait a frickin minute Wait one god damned minute This IS still America, right The once great land where anything was possible The nation that gave us Muhammid Ali, the electric blues, NFL football, Classic Rock, muscle cars, baseball cards and Indie films The nation that put a man on the moon, created the internet, defeated Hitler, and invented the roller coaster and gonzo journalism So why can t this be the nation to perfect the electric car and give rebirth to the dream of the American road trip Addicted To OilOur country s addiction to oil was at one time a good thing After World War II oil promoted innovation, it got the country moving, it enriched our culture But in october of 1973, for reasons too complex to get into here, Egypt and Syria attacked Isreal Our President, Richard Milhouse Nixon, sided with Isreal which resulted in an oil embargo on the US by the anti Isreal, oil exporting countries of the Mid East This embargo caused a disastrous energy crisis in America as oil skyrocketed from just 3 a barrel to 40 almost overnight There were lines at gas stations as oil consuming Americans worried about not having enough fuel to maintain their lives The idea of an alternative to the gas engine car started to become something worth serious considerion In 1976 in fact, three years after the Arab oil embargo, Congress passed the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act despite a veto by then President Jerry Ford The idea was to stimulate the production of alternatives to gas engines During Jimmy Carter s time in office remember Jimmy Carter the guy who put solar panels on the roof of the white house government funds were provided that led to serious progress in the development of electric batteries This progress lead to an enormous cultural and economic impact via the resulting gadget boom of the early mid 80s digital watches, pocket calculators, cameras, portable stereos, Sony walkmen, cell phones As the gadget boom continued throughout the 80s it seemed like it was only just a matter of time until a viable electric car battery would be produced But then, just like that, development for the electric car in the USA came to a sudden standstill In 1985 the price of oil began to fall again as the short sighted Reagan Administration deregulated the oil industry Oil companies were finding new petroleum sources in the North Sea, Alaska, Mexico and South America Meanwhile OPEC lowered its prices in a successful attempt to increase U.S addiction to oil and by 1986 the price of oil dropped down to only 15 a barrel As Japanase auto companies encroached on the US auto market the idea of the electric car became evenmarginalized To compete with Japanese automakers the Reagan Administration was compelled to promote the cumsuption of cars with combustionable engines and totally dismiss alternative energy On page 37 of Seth Fletcher s book Bottled Lightening, he writes Reagan came in and cut back energy efficiency and renewable energy programs by something like 80 percent, Elton Cairns, who at the time was working on advanced battery research at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, told me All labs, including ours, suffered layoffs as a result The reduction in funding occured something like overnight That pretty well put an end to the significant involvement in DOE Department of Energy labs in battery and fuel cell programs at that time The documentary Who Killed The Electric Car picks up the story from there In 1987 a solar powered vehicle created by an L.A company called AeroVironment won the World Solar Challenge race across Austrailia Law makers in California took note and began to see that emission free vehicles were very much a reality This inspired the California Air Resource Board known as CARB to pass a mandate in 1990 that called for 2% of all cars sold in California to be emission free by 1995 Car companies hen began teetering between trying to comply to this mandate and working to get the mandate repealed The technology to make a viable electric car was bascially there In fact within a short period GM came up with the EV1, an electric car that was fast, smooth, stylish, aerodynamic, emission free and silent It went up to 140 miles per charge But the EV1 was not for sale GM decided it to only lease the car, for about 349 a month Francis Ford Coppola leased one Mel Gibson leased one 24,000 customers from L.A and NYC alone called in requesting to lease a EV1 before it even hit the market Yet even as GM was producing this amazing vehicle with a huge demand, they realized thatprofit was to be made in keeping with the gas combustionable engine vehicle business model The gas engine was so muchcomplex in terms of working parts and therefore neededmaintenance which yielded incredible profits for car manufactures, while the electric engine required absolutely no maintenance at all So the auto companies, in cahoots with the big oil companies, began lobbying CARB to end the emmission free mandate which was scheduled to be increased to a 10% requirement of all vehicles sold in California by 2003.Since there was no common sense reason for CARB to repeal the mandate other than it would line the big auto and big oil companies pockets , the auto manufacturers and oil companies had to manufacture a reason Enter the hydrogen fuel cell vehicle an idea they used as a stalling tactic or a bait and switch to dupe Bill Clinton and later Geroge W Bush into promoting the ideal of fuel cell cars The fantastical idea of the fuel cell vehicle allowed the oil companies and car manufacturers to argue that fuel cell was a better way to go than the electric car with the caveat that they needed a bittime to develop fuel cell technology In reality however, it would take decades if ever to develop and it actually cost one million dollars to make just ONE fuel cell car whereas electric cars were going for around 32,000 This seemed like a hard sell, but to hedge their bets the oil and car companies got the chairman of the hydrogen fuel cell board of California, Lloyd elected as the chairman of CARB And in 2003 CARB repealed the mandate Then, in a gesture reminescient of Ronald Reagan having the solar panels removed from the white house roof upon moving in, GM and the other auto makers recalled ALL their elelctric vehicles every last one of them trucked them out to the desert and had them literally crushed Meanwhile, the Bush Administration s War for Oil in Iraq had been declared and was in full swing.Yes We Can Upon winning office in 2008 Barrack Obama put an immediate emphasis on ending the USA s addiction to oil as he put forth historic new nationwide fuel economy standards of a 35.5 mpg fleetwide by 2016 a 40 percent increase over existing standards Then, as Fletcher writes on page 115 the current White House wassupportive of automotive electrification than any since Carter s Obama worked an oblique mention of the Volt GM s current electric car into his first joint address to Congress as an example of the automotive technology of the future and as a compelling reason to fund an American lithium ion battery industry And on March 19, 2009, he toured the Electric Vehicle Technical Center at Southern California Edison and declared a goal of putting one million electric cars on the road by the year 2015 He announced a 2 billion competitive grant program for electric car battery and component manufacturers And the list goes on Today, there are a number of electric cars on the road Chevy has the Volt, Nissan has the Leaf, Tesla has its Roadster Meanwhile Ford, Toyota, Mitshubishi, Volkswagen, Audi and even Porsche have all announced plans to release an electric car by 2012 We will soon be seeing electric cars that can go 300 miles on a fully charged battery and which take as little as 5 minutes to recharge You can charge the electric cars from your own home or at conveniently located charging stations WalMart, are you listening The cost of an electic car has dropped to below 32,000 and considering the savings a driver will get from no longer having to put gas in their vehicle with gas prices flirting with 5 dollars a gallon, it costs TEN times as much to travel in a gas engine vehicle than an electric vehicle , plus the savings from not having to get oil changes and engine maintenance, there is no reason NOT to buy an electric car In fact I see no reason why I should ever need to buy a gas engine car again in my life I can see a 21st century where the American road trip returns, where I can travel all day on about one dollar in energy costs Where I can drive my kids from small town to big city showing them all the greatness and glory that is still America Overall, there are points in Seth Fletcher s Bottled Lightening where you might need to have at least a high school level physics class understanding of chemistry in order to get the gist of the history and evolution of man s relationship to electricity As this history unfolds it is interesting enough, but it begins taking on aimmediate relevence as Fletcher brings us into the early 1970s and the U.S energy crisis he goes onto to explain how teh electric car has gotten to where it is today and where it is going in the future For this I give Bottled Lightening 3 out of 5 wagemannheads.NEXT I read this book back in High School Nearly 8 years later here I am remembering it I think the book initially caught my interest because of the documentary who killed the electric car The documentary was very eye opening as it shed light on how bureaucracy, corporate interests, and red tape can hold back human technological advancement Not to advocate for Ayn Rand, both this book and the doc I mentioned go into detail into personal stories of real people all involved in the modern history I read this book back in High School Nearly 8 years later here I am remembering it I think the book initially caught my interest because of the documentary who killed the electric car The documentary was very eye opening as it shed light on how bureaucracy, corporate interests, and red tape can hold back human technological advancement Not to advocate for Ayn Rand, both this book and the doc I mentioned go into detail into personal stories of real people all involved in the modern history of the electric car I must warn you, some of this stuff is a bit out dated now I remember the book implored for the electric car to become the car of today instead of the car of tomorrow Crazy how in less than 10 years, how much has changed Looking back, it s quite encouraging to see the electric car as the little electric train that could It s overcome amazing odds The powers of big oil and big auto failed to kill it, and are now betting all in for the future.The book gives further instrumental details you may never realize you craved for From the Dodge Viper to the power vs energy problem, to the tragedy of the EV1, to the battery dilemma a logical history of the electric car up until 2011 is given.Why read it now Well, I couldn t give you a reason By all means its become part of the history it wrote But the story is still that of David vs Goliath Of a haphazardous dream over 100 years in the making It is an inspiring tale of an idea that just wouldn t die And it all really happened.If you ever wish to follow up on the electric car, a sequel documentary was released, appropriately named The Revenge of the Electric Car Looking back, I m still in awe of how much this book predicted, or at the very least hoped for, to come true Bottled Lightningis a fascinating story on the development of the electric car The book starts of by talking about the development of the electric car from the begining its name and while it was a concept to the latest electric cars It mainly focuses on one specific part of the electric car, the battery It focuuses heavaliy on the battery for very long due to being a fundumental and problemental part of the electric car While talking about the battery it goes very in depth into its history Bottled Lightningis a fascinating story on the development of the electric car The book starts of by talking about the development of the electric car from the begining its name and while it was a concept to the latest electric cars It mainly focuses on one specific part of the electric car, the battery It focuuses heavaliy on the battery for very long due to being a fundumental and problemental part of the electric car While talking about the battery it goes very in depth into its history and how it works I would recomend this book to anyone looking into electric cars to get a better understanding The book is very informational and portrays its information in 2 ways It protrays its information either by a history lesson or an indepth analysis Overall its a very good book This book covers a lot of bases The development of electric cars technical and political , the history of super batteries leading to the current lithium ion technology, the interdependence of the auto and battery industries, and a look into the future of battery development The book is a quick read, and not overly technical However, your understanding will be enhanced if you remember some of your high school chemistry Bottled Lightning was published in 2011, so I need to do some on line re This book covers a lot of bases The development of electric cars technical and political , the history of super batteries leading to the current lithium ion technology, the interdependence of the auto and battery industries, and a look into the future of battery development The book is a quick read, and not overly technical However, your understanding will be enhanced if you remember some of your high school chemistry Bottled Lightning was published in 2011, so I need to do some on line research to see what further progress has been made in the last seven years