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I will be honest to say that I did not read every page of this book, mainly because I am familiar with the content I am currently enrolled in class that addresses many of the social topics that goes on society, whether that be police brutality, race contentions, civil rights and other things In particular Blacks living in the modern world after slavery It is a touchy subject that will infuriate a lot of people, even may separate two races but it cannot be ignored Regarding the content of th I will be honest to say that I did not read every page of this book, mainly because I am familiar with the content I am currently enrolled in class that addresses many of the social topics that goes on society, whether that be police brutality, race contentions, civil rights and other things In particular Blacks living in the modern world after slavery It is a touchy subject that will infuriate a lot of people, even may separate two races but it cannot be ignored Regarding the content of this book, the main idea was that Blacks still live in segregated cities Despite the efforts to eliminate barriers that prevented racism sadly racism is alive and well whether subtle or overt.I am not too big on a lot of statistical data but they are very relevant I do think that this book should be required reading to college and even lower level courses It pains me to read through all of this material, mainly cause I wonder have me made any progress with discrimination Racism and policies are still enforced, it is only be ignorance that we are blind to what goes on before us.Really detailed but informative book that will modify how you perceive segregation chapter 6 how to build an underclass a ghetto and 7 how to sustain it were whew. you know when people talk about institutionalized racism and it s a bit murky exactly what that looks like this book will explain it.Denton and Massey s classic details the psychosocial forms that racism takes, in creating the conditions for white flight and blockbusting and all that good stuff They describe large amounts of survey data from the last several decades that show whites favoring desegregation but being afraid or unwilling to live in neighborhoods that arethan 20 30% black you know when people talk about institutionalized racism and it s a bit murky exactly what that looks like this book will explain it.Denton and Massey s classic details the psychosocial forms that racism takes, in creating the conditions for white flight and blockbusting and all that good stuff They describe large amounts of survey data from the last several decades that show whites favoring desegregation but being afraid or unwilling to live in neighborhoods that arethan 20 30% black They walk you through the statistical analysis showing how geographic concentration of poor people leads topoverty, and on and on.They also distill a century s worth of integration activism and government and real estate industry response in the form of legislation and federal oversight or in this case, mostly not to show how a combination of powerful interests have created and sustained the black ghetto.Like many sociological works, it tends towards repetition You have the sense that chapters are written to be excerpted, one chapter read here and there in a college course I can imagine the Stokely Carmichael critique that it too often proposes integration with whites as a solution to black problems, as if whites were inherently a good influence But the authors do a good job of proving that blacks desire residential integration and would prefer to live in mixed neighborhoods, and thus grounding their arguments on choice and freedom rather than the civilizing effects of middle class white neighborhoods.There are also some new to me ideas about the importance of coalition politics in building community and productive assimilation New immigrants to America tend to live in ethnic enclaves but not highly segregated ones those legendary all Jewish areas of New York were probably 50% Jewish, 20% Polish, and 30% Italian These groups worked together on local politics to get neighborhood needs met and receive patronage Ethnic coalitions helped each group maintain identity while participating productively in a democratic society High rates of black residential segregation prevent interethnic coalition building and make it paradoxically in the black community s immediate interest to remain segregated in order to maintain control of safe elected positions Separatism produces its own power real, but weaker than that of a wider coalition.The authors also manage to synthesize prevailing arguments about the determining roles of race vs class in maintaining the black underclass Well worth the read If we must shift to a national curriculum, this book should be on the mandatory reading list. An excellent work of sociology that explores the roots and dynamics of poverty and housing segregation in American cities This work is a bit old now, but even if you have read a lot on housing segregation, I d still recommend this insightful book The main argument is that housing segregation is the central cause of the underclass, or the emergence of a persistently poor, crime field, pathological set of AA neighborhoods in cities across the country Massey explores the history of this segr An excellent work of sociology that explores the roots and dynamics of poverty and housing segregation in American cities This work is a bit old now, but even if you have read a lot on housing segregation, I d still recommend this insightful book The main argument is that housing segregation is the central cause of the underclass, or the emergence of a persistently poor, crime field, pathological set of AA neighborhoods in cities across the country Massey explores the history of this segregation, including an outstanding chapter on the Fair Housing Act of 1968, in which he shows that the act only passed because it was gutted of enforcement provisions The federal government then did very little to carry out the act especially the Reagan admin, which was so hostile to fair housing and other civil rights provisions that it sparked the passage of a tougher fair housing act in 1988 I thought what really made this book interesting was its explanation for how segregation causes and underclass and how this class problems spread from one generation to another The main point was that housing segregation concentrates poverty, which concentrates and normalizing the social behavioral ills of poverty Let me unpack this If a segment of the population that is disproportionately poor isevenly distributed throughout the population, it benefits from the variety of things that a slightly wealthier community usually provides better schools, safer streets,intact families, better relations with the police, inter ethnic political alliances, etc This is roughly what happened with many white and Hispanic groups, for whom housing segregation obstacles were far lower If, however, a poorer group is concentrated together, and whenever the wealthier among that group tries to move the ghetto follows them as whites flee the area, social and behavioral problems become concentrated, intensified, and even normalized The community, in a sense, becomes less than the some of its parts people are moving around constantly see the book Evicted foron this , policing isaggressive, norms about parenthood and upkeep of homes are reduced in a population that already didn t have a lot of resources for these things anyway , and a kind of despair, anger, and short term thinking can set in Massey only explores this dynamic for inner city black neighborhoods, where housing segregation, poverty, and crime areintensely concentrated However, I think it would be interesting to apply it to post industrial white American towns and other contexts I d also say that this explanation of housing segregation s relationship to stubborn poverty could be accepted by both conservatives and liberals, although I think conservatives would have to go farther in setting aside the personal responsibility fixation.This book also uses a handy measurement to show that African Americans have been uniquely segregated in American history It s an index of segregation that aggregates all the census tracts in a city and averages out the percentage of the average black person s neighbors that would also be black SO if the segregation index is 90, that means that 90% of black people would have to move to other neighborhoods to achieve a perfectly integrated city It means that 90% of the average black person s neighbors are also black Chicago, for example, was hyper segregated in the 70s and 80s, recording scores well over 90 I found this to be a really useful measurement for the level of segregation in a city It also convincingly shows that old ethnic neighborhoods Italians, Irish, etc , to the extent that we could measure, were never anywhere near as segregated as black neighborhoods, usually getting a score of around 30.As you can probably tell, this is a heavily sociological work, but to me this is the best kind of social science work because it is a problem that screams out for good data Massey is also a good historian, as he offers the reader a basic narrative of housing segregation and urban race relations in the 20th century He also does a great job explaining how his argument challenges existing arguments in the early 1990s about inner city poverty and crime I could see some people objecting to his argument as implicitly critical of majority African American neighborhoods, saying that he s saying that it isn t good when a bunch of black people are congregated in the same places That s not his argument though His argument is that the unique exclusion of AA s from the mainstream of American life, including housing segregation and broader socio economic mobility, has made the concentration of poverty in black neighborhoods a creator and sustainer of broader problems It really has nothing to do with black culture inherently, contra many conservative rationalizations of black poverty I think this is a really important contribution Incredibly insightful In no history class did I get such a thorough picture of the nature of segregation especially not as it relates to recent times While I have thoughts their discussion of oppositional identity and have critique of some nuance regarding that, over all the historical account of segregation, policy, and its effects was excellent. A very informative but heart wrenching read The main focal point is discrimination in housing To illustrate how serious that problem is, it was necessary for the effects of poverty, isolation segregation to be understood as well The description of discriminatory practices such as redlining, blockbusting, spoken unspoken restrictive covenants is given a detailed history how that affects communities is demonstrated in the results of concentrated isolation segregation Understanding how A very informative but heart wrenching read The main focal point is discrimination in housing To illustrate how serious that problem is, it was necessary for the effects of poverty, isolation segregation to be understood as well The description of discriminatory practices such as redlining, blockbusting, spoken unspoken restrictive covenants is given a detailed history how that affects communities is demonstrated in the results of concentrated isolation segregation Understanding how all of that comes together paints a grim depressing picture That picture is made worse by how the Federal Housing Act of 1968, in the wake of Martin Luther King Jr s assassination the riots that followed, was rendered impotent as it was passed made virtually useless by legislation lack of enforcement that followed until the Amendments passed in 1988 to fix the issues that were either known at the time the act was passed or within a few years after The attitudes of white people in regards to integration in principal vs practice are talked about as well it historically has not matched up well.Whether this issue affecting black communities is one of race or class is given some time towards the end of the book Considering what I learned from the book the arguments put forward, I think it is both though leaningso towards race in regards to black people That is to say, they are not to the exclusion of each other the issues in these communities would be better solved by attacking both issues, not one or the other, but the role that race plays cannot be denied Political will is necessary and given what I know about money in politics, that is unlikely to happen to the extent necessary without tackling that issue as well Enforcement of penalties legislation is necessary as well without obstacles to the audits necessary to flush out these issues the need for suits to be brought by these audits Still, that isn t enough To me, it makes clear the importance changing the perception of integrated neighborhoods eliminate segregation across the board to allow people a chance at upward mobility access to resources that living in neighborhoods that are integrated across race class provide It cannot be islands of integration in a sea of segregation.It is a very good book that, as sad heart wrenching as it was to read comprehend the effects described, has helped inform my view of the reality in this country our communities &FREE DOWNLOAD ⇖ American Apartheid ☠ This powerful and disturbing book clearly links persistent poverty among blacks in the United States to the unparalleled degree of deliberate segregation they experience in American cities American Apartheid shows how the black ghetto was created by whites during the first half of the twentieth century in order to isolate growing urban black populations It goes on to show that, despite the Fair Housing Act of , segregation is perpetuated today through an interlocking set of individual actions, institutional practices, and governmental policies In some urban areas the degree of black segregation is so intense and occurs in so many dimensions simultaneously that it amounts to hypersegregation The authors demonstrate that this systematic segregation of African Americans leads inexorably to the creation of underclass communities during periods of economic downturn Under conditions of extreme segregation, any increase in the overall rate of black poverty yields a marked increase in the geographic concentration of indigence and the deterioration of social and economic conditions in black communitiesAs ghetto residents adapt to this increasingly harsh environment under a climate of racial isolation, they evolve attitudes, behaviors, and practices that further marginalize their neighborhoods and undermine their chances of success in mainstream American society This book is a sober challenge to those who argue that race is of declining significance in the United States today Massey and Denton propose a theory of the American urban underclass that is based on premise that residential segregation the ghetto is a condition that has been created and perpetuated by white America throughout the 20th century and intensifying since the 1950s Based exclusively on US Census data, they show that African Americans are by far the most segregated demographic in the US the richest African Americans are stillsegregated than the poorest Hispanics The consequences of res Massey and Denton propose a theory of the American urban underclass that is based on premise that residential segregation the ghetto is a condition that has been created and perpetuated by white America throughout the 20th century and intensifying since the 1950s Based exclusively on US Census data, they show that African Americans are by far the most segregated demographic in the US the richest African Americans are stillsegregated than the poorest Hispanics The consequences of residential segregation are devastating and, Massey and Denton argue, are the precipitating factors in the perpetuation of the urban underclass They include poorly funded neighborhood schools which fail to give students exposure to adiverse racial environment, multiplying the challenge of escaping the cycle perpetuating the ghetto and isolation from social networks that are the primary connection to jobs and upward mobility for whites.White flight and black exclusion are the two ways that residential segregation is perpetuated If exclusion methods like neighborhood associations, real estate agent steering, and threats of violence do not do the job and the black population grows beyond 10% or so, whites leave the neighborhood in droves for the suburbs When polled, few African Americans say they prefer to live in all black neighborhoods To the contrary, they overwhelmingly support an even proportion of 50% black and 50% white, supporting the argument that the ghetto is imposed by whites upon blacks.Massey and Denton s hypothesis does not require though they do mention approvingly the assumption that black urban culture itself contributes to urban poverty, a view that African American Studies scholars like Robin D.G Kelly reject Residential segregation alone can account for the crisis For this reason, I think it is an issue that deservesattention than any other facing urban America today, and this book convinced me 1 The Great Migration racist governmental policies discriminatory acts by realtors and lenders individual acts of prejudice American Apartheid, the curious case of blacks being heavily segregated throughout the country s major urban centers, especially those in the Midwest and Northeast.Segregated housing economic downturn which disproportionately affected blacks heavy concentration of poverty for blacks, which in turn caused the associated effects of poverty crime, drug abuse, sin 1 The Great Migration racist governmental policies discriminatory acts by realtors and lenders individual acts of prejudice American Apartheid, the curious case of blacks being heavily segregated throughout the country s major urban centers, especially those in the Midwest and Northeast.Segregated housing economic downturn which disproportionately affected blacks heavy concentration of poverty for blacks, which in turn caused the associated effects of poverty crime, drug abuse, single mother households, welfare dependency to manifest themselves in greater numbers and proportion in those communities.2 Although published in 1993, and although segregation has trended downward in the last 20 years, all this means is that black communities have gone from hypersegregated to just segregated.3 I read this in college and didn t realize it until I received the book from the library and recognized the cover Scary how much I took in in college is no longer with me