@Read Epub ¸ A History of the Modern Middle East ⚣ eBook or Kindle ePUB free

@Read Epub ì A History of the Modern Middle East Î This comprehensive work provides a penetrating analysis of modern Middle Eastern history, from the Ottoman and Egyptian reforms, through the challenge of Western imperialism, to the Iranian Revolution and the Gulf War After introducing the reader to the region s history from the origins of Islam in the seventh century, Cleveland focuses on the past two centuries of profound and often dramatic change While built around a framework of political history, the book also carefully integrates social, cultural, and economic developments into a single, carefully crafted account The revised and updated third edition of this benchmark text places the developments of the s in a new historical perspective and includes an examination of key events of the early twenty first century An epilogue offers a critical evaluation, from a historian s perspective, of the al Qa ida attacks of September th,and the early phases of the US occupation of Iraq I was just talking this morning with a friend about the French and the English making the modern Middle East Who had adisastorous run of colonialism through these invented countries Read the history and decide for yourself. An excellent, detailed book I rate 4 stars because it s not quite complete Yambert s The Contemporary Middle East A Westview Reader fills in the gaps of some topics, such as coverage of the Arab Spring and other less studied Middle Eastern countries Cleveland and Bunton s, however, explores the 19th century to earlier and the Ottoman Empire in depth while Yambert s doesn t, which is why Yambert s is contemporary history Both books were published in 2013 on the same press They are great An excellent, detailed book I rate 4 stars because it s not quite complete Yambert s The Contemporary Middle East A Westview Reader fills in the gaps of some topics, such as coverage of the Arab Spring and other less studied Middle Eastern countries Cleveland and Bunton s, however, explores the 19th century to earlier and the Ottoman Empire in depth while Yambert s doesn t, which is why Yambert s is contemporary history Both books were published in 2013 on the same press They are great complements to each other.If you are new to Middle Eastern history and must choose only one, I recommend Yambert s first then Cleveland and Bunton s, because the former includes timelines and quicker reading of ancient to early modern history to get up to speed on the background before the book dives into the past hundred years, where it gets going around WWI It also has similar enough essays for consistency, but also different enough essays to give multiple views on matters due to the 30 contributors Then pick up Cleveland and Bunton s book for the full modern treatment.Both of these books are geared toward a US audience due to its focus at many times on US Middle Eastern relations, but any English reader will benefit from the information.It might be useful for those who are familiar with very recent Middle Eastern history to study backward in Cleveland and Bunton to see the connections grow Otherwise, start with Yambert because of the Arab Spring coverage To sum Cleveland and Bunton detailed, thorough, coverage of the 19th century to earlier history, but some gaps.Yambert get up to speed quickly, easier read, less details, broader coverage, multiple perspectives, past 100 years history.Also recommended to supplement the prior two The Middle East A History I found the prose of this book unbiased, detailed and coherent The modern history of a middle eastern country can only be understood in the context of the larger narrative of its relation to the other movements in the region and this book does a good job of putting the story into perspective.Perhaps the author could have improved on its documentation of the references and citations, but otherwise, the book did justice to the topic. I picked up this book a couple months ago at the behest of a friend The latest Middle Eastern tragedy was still unfolding hundreds of Palestinians being shot by Israeli snipers at the Gaza border , and while I had certain predispositions about how to feel based on the two decades or so of news I ve followed since I was in high school, I finally wanted to buttress my modern understanding with a broad look at history.This book turned out to be the perfect tool for the task.I m pleased to say tha I picked up this book a couple months ago at the behest of a friend The latest Middle Eastern tragedy was still unfolding hundreds of Palestinians being shot by Israeli snipers at the Gaza border , and while I had certain predispositions about how to feel based on the two decades or so of news I ve followed since I was in high school, I finally wanted to buttress my modern understanding with a broad look at history.This book turned out to be the perfect tool for the task.I m pleased to say that it expanded my view of the entire region, reinforcing certain predispositions I had while helping me to re frame others For instance, I long ago internalized the argument often made that much of the turmoil in the Middle East today comes as a consequence of capricious foreign policy on the part of the Brits after the peak of their global empire Borders drawn haphazardly on a map with no consideration for the ethnic and sectarian communities that were being divided Or, in certain cases, borders drawn in a deliberately obfuscating way to prevent countries from gaining regional primacy, as with the division between Iraq and Kuwait.That s still true But, because Cleveland starts his history all the way back with the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid Empire, you actually get the context for the decision making So while the British did comport themselves with their special brand of Anglo arrogance, they were trying to fill a power vacuum left in the wake of the implosion of the Ottoman Empire They weren t disturbing the region from a state of peace and plenty, they were figuring out how to parse competing power centers while also achieving their own material ends.Another really important bit of context was Cleveland s focus on the means of political expression with a history of success in the region From a contemporary American perspective, the idea of a political Islam is basically anathema We treat it like an aberration designed for the express purpose of holding the region back from the natural course of secular liberalism This is, needless to say, a huge joke.Islam is one of roughly three tactics for political organization in the region in the last several centuries It s a particularly potent one, since Islam is woven so deeply into the cultures of all the region s major players Whatever the newest trends are that sweep the region s cities, the ulama in the countryside preserve the practice of Islam, so when all else goes wrong, it remains an important method for political expression and dissent.More familiar from a Western perspective is nationalism of the kind expressed by Iraq or Nasser s Egypt Nationalism tends to work really well as an organizing principle in the west, because it aligns with our pluralistic traditions But it s really only a recent addition in the Middle East, and it doesn t have terribly deep roots because of the aforementioned capriciously wrought borders A Shia Muslim in eastern Iraq hasin common with a fellow Shia in neighboring Iran than he does a Sunni in Baghdad So unless the state is generating enough revenue to buy people off with a generous welfare state, appeals to nationalism seem only so effective.And since American global hegemony has relied for so long on the rule of nationalistic autocrats who often operate corrupt regimes that horde resources and hold down the will of the people, it seems only natural that people turn to other methods of political expression.The third form of political organization never really stuck, but I found it pretty interesting pan Arabism What WOULD happen if the Arab states were able to throw off their poorly drawn borders and operate as a regional or global power It s a vision only sporadically pursued, but to me it seems the model with the most long term potential.Back to the book I really liked the way it was structured It s chronological, but the chapters are also divided by theme and geography so you do kind of dip back into topics you ve already covered, but they re explored through a new lens each time It s the most effective form of historic storytelling and is particularly effective for a big historic synthesis like this one Cleveland is a terrific writer and this work perfectly fulfilled the mission I set out for it The fact that it ends at 1999 is honestly kind of perfect, because with all that s happened in the last 20 years, he d need to double the page length.That basically concludes my actual review, but I do want to stick some notes and ill formed impressions of each country that he covers on here, because I know I will need something to jog my memory in the future when I think back on this book in light of future events.Iran I think I m a little less critical of the Shah than I once was Shia Islam and the legacy of the Safavids seems to lend Persian culture a natural affinity for monarchy that you sort of lose when you just read about the excesses of the last shah I still find the Persian people sympathetic and I think American foreign policy that treats Iran like a pariah state is self defeating and likely remains as it is because of concerns about Israel.Israel What can you say without being drawing the ire of Zionists on the web It s hard not to be sympathetic to the plight of the Jewish diaspora in the wake of the Holocaust, but nothing about the way that the country has conducted itself since its creation lends it much sympathy to the student of history The ill conceived attacks by its neighbors justify the country s ruthless militancy in a way, but it s a straight up apartheid state Iraq I actually felt sympathetic for Saddam Hussein How weird is that Not in that he is an autocrat responsible for gassing large populations, but in the strategic sense Attacking Kuwait makes a certain kind of sense when you take it in context, and he had every reason to believe the U.S would support him It s a shame what has happened to a country with such an incredibly rich history richer than almost any civilization on the planet.Turkey What a confounding mix of militancy, secularism and ambition One wonders how different the region would be if a politician of the caliber of Ataturk was still around.Egypt It s easy to forget that Egypt was once one of the biggest power centers in the entire world But with the wane of Nasser and its absorption into the American sphere of influence, they really abdicated their leadership role in the region to Iran, Turkey and Iraq Learning about the Muslim Brotherhood was also particularly interesting in light of recent events.Syria, Jordan, Lebanon I still don t really understand them Jordan is basically a fiction And Syria should really be much larger If only Palestine hadn t been lopped off for the sake of British expediency